Evaluation Research at the Rutgers School of Public Health in New Brunswick

However, he said, “traditional paper cigarettes contain a lot of other carcinogens, and the burning of their tobacco, tar, carbons and other harmful chemicals creates tremendous toxic side effects. So, in many ways, nicotine is the least of a smoker’s concerns.”Cristine Delnevo, professor and director of the Center for Tobacco Surveillance and Evaluation Research at the Rutgers School of Public Health in New Brunswick, agreed.
“There are over 7,000 chemicals in traditional cigarette smoke, hundreds of them are toxic, and 70 of them are known to cause cancer,” she said. By contrast, “there are usually only a few ingredients in e-cigarette liquid/vapor and, while an e-cigarette’s nicotine content and toxicants can vary greatly from one brand to another, the research to-date suggests that the levels of toxicants found in e-cigarettes are on an order of magnitude lower than those found in traditional cigarette smoke.”That’s not to imply that nicotine addiction is without its hazards. While more research has yet to be done on the dangers of nicotine addiction as an isolated substance separate from the other carcinogens contained in paper cigarettes, “nicotine is what addicts people to smoking cigarettes,” Lahita explained. “It wraps around the brain and provides both energy and a calming influence in a cyclical pattern so that people crave more.”

According to Lahita, the use/overuse of nicotine can cause high blood pressure, irregular heartbeat, back pain, depression, anxiety, nausea and sleep disturbances — all reasons why the FDA considers nicotine a drug and potential poison and regulates the sale of tobacco products.But another way it can be harmful is direct contact.In most of the country, you must be 18 or older to purchase cigarettes, though in 2006 New Jersey became one of four states to increase the minimum purchase age to 19.”In addition, the liquid nicotine used in e-cigarettes is a higher and more pure dose of nicotine than contained in traditional cigarettes,” he nsaid.He noted that, while the industry is still investigating the impact of that, “We know that nicotine isn’t good for you over the long haul and that it creates dependency,”a particular concern for kids who may be purchasing it illegally online.A cessation solution?
At Lighthouse Cigars in Hazlet, where owner Ralph J. Seber III has been selling e-cigarettes for three to four years, he observed that these smokeless substitutes do fill a need.

But another way it can be harmful is direct contact.

In its purest form, nicotine, which is extracted from the tobacco plant, can be toxic to the touch. But the product juice-makers buy, often in jugs or barrels, already is diluted to about 10 percent. If enough gets absorbed through the skin, from a broken vial, for instance, it could make a person nauseated to the point of vomiting.The real danger, though  and the thrust of the New York Times story is the possibility that children could happen upon a vial of juice and ingest it.
“These fluids e in flavors that are attractive for kids,” said Dr. Helene Calvet, deputy county health officer for Orange County’s Health Care Agency. “If a kid gets hold of this and sucks down even a small amount, it could be pretty dangerous.”

Nicotine would be potentially fatal for an adult who ingests 0.5 to 1.0 milligrams per kilogram of body weight. But for children, that threshold could be as low as 0.1 mg per kilo, says Dr. Chesda Eng, a smoking-cessation specialist with St. Joseph Heritage Medical Group in Garden Grove. If a child ingests “maybe a teaspoon, that can be lethal.”Some e-cig proponents took serious issue with The Times’ reporting: nicotine levels in most juicers “range between 1.8 percent 18 mg per ml and 2.4 percent, concentrations that can cause sickness, but rarely death, in children. But higher concentrations, like 10 percent or even 7.2 percent, are widely available on the Internet.”

“We feel that it is unnecessary to be that high in the first place,” said Nguyen, who is a co-partner of an Anaheim juice-maker, Epic Juice. A vial that’s 2.4 percent would mostly be used by a long-term smoker trying to maintain his fix until he can reduce the dosage.The New York Times noted that Minnesota’s poison-control center received 74 calls in 2013 related to poisoning cases from e-cigs or nicotine. Of those, 29 were children 2 and under. But an e-cigarette advocacy group called the Consumer Advocates for Smoke-free Alternatives Association noted that same center received 35 calls about nicotine-replacement therapy products, as well as 2,300 calls for household cleaners and 3,100 calls related to personal-care products.

But as e-cigs are a growing business here

Although the Health Ministry’s bill to bar tobacco advertising in the print media failed to pass in the Knesset a few months ago due to vigorous lobbying by cigarette panies, public health head Prof. Itamar Grotto hopes its initiative to prevent the sales of electronic cigarettes does not share the same fate.
After four months’ preparation of a draft to prohibit the sale of both e-cigarettes and the chemicals that fill them, the document has been issued for the perusal of the public.Grotto hopes the document will reach the Knesset and be passed in another half year, he said on Monday.

But as e-cigs are a growing business here, legislation to protect public health could easily have trouble ove ing the vested interests.Most but not all e-cigs contain concentrated nicotine, an addictive drug and “medical poison,” according to the document. This quickly causes smokers to b e dependent on tobacco and goes straight from the lungs into the bloodstream and the brain.As increasingly stringent legislation has limited smoking in public places in Israel and abroad, causing tobacco panies to be worried about their i e and addicted users to worry about when and where they can get their “fix,” panies have increasingly developed and put on the market electronic cigarettes that give users the feeling of smoking without polluting their environment.

These, said the ministry, can be “even more dangerous” than smoking nicotine.Consisting of a battery, a device that heats the chemical and a container to store it,What it means for tobacco panies an electronic cigarette vaporizes the powder or liquid into synthetic smoke.
Although Israeli law bars smoking in public places, it has not yet set down any rules regarding the use of e-cigs in public places or their advertisement and marketing.A bill to include e-cigs in existing prohibitions has been tabled in the Knesset.
The ministry stated that e-cigs and related products “pose a severe health danger to the public.”When the chemical is nicotine, it is a psychoactive stimulant, a poison and addictive, and it releases adrenaline and dopamine. It is also used as an agricultural insecticide. As the nicotine in e-cigs is much more concentrated 24 mgs. during seven minutes of “smoking” pared to 1 mg. in tobacco it is more poisonous, the ministry document stated.

What it means for tobacco panies

A study published in JAMA Pediatrics found that e-cigarettes contributed to teenage nicotine addiction. E-cigarettes, which e in flavors like cherry, strawberry, and cookies & cream, are less harsh than cigarettes, making it easier for adventurous teenagers to pick up the habit. Moreover, the study showed that current smokers who had never used e-cigarettes were more determined to quit than those who had used e-cigarettes. Although scientists are far from reaching a consensus on the issue, these findings could put a damper on e-cigarette growth.The Food and Drug Administration has not yet released prehensive guidelines for e-cigarette regulation, but many states and municipalities are already clamping down on the tobacco-free devices. Bills in New York, Oregon, New Jersey, Washington, and a number of other states have proposed taxing and regulating e-cigarettes like other tobacco products.

High taxes, marketing restrictions, and public awareness about the health risks associated with smoking tobacco have led to a long-term secular decline in cigarette consumption in the U.S. The same factors could put a lid on e-cigarette growth.Altria has the most to lose from e-cigarette growth. It was the last of the big three U.S. tobacco panies to announce a nationwide rollout of its e-cigarette brand, and its 50% share of the U.S. cigarette market gives it a dominant share of the industry’s profits. Stunted e-cigarette growth would reaffirm Altria’s dominant position in the industry.Reynolds is in the same boat as Altria. Its Vuse e-cigarette has yet to gain wide adoption, while its Camel and Pall Mall brands bine for a 17.8% share of the cigarette market. All of the pany’s brands bine for a 26% share of the cigarette market.

Its revenue is largely dependent on Newport menthol cigarettes; Newport mentholated and non-mentholated accounts for 85% of Lorillard’s cigarette volume. Given pending legislative restrictions on menthol cigarettes, Lorillard’s small but growing e cigarette business is an important source of diversification.Nobody knows how e-cigarettes will be regulated; the rules have yet to be drawn up.Lorillard, on the other hand, stands to gain a meaningful new source of revenue if it can maintain a dominant share of a growing e-cigarette market.

The magic of clary sage

Reynolds now declines to specify where its 5,200 U.S. workers are located, but in 2012 it reported that roughly 2,100 were in the Winston-Salem area.Farmers could fend off tobacco produced in countries where the labor was cheaper Like many other tobacco-related panies, it has seen its workforce drop substantially, from about 15,000 tobacco manufacturing workers in 1987 in the Winston-Salem area.The chance to reverse that erosion isn’t lost on Reynolds executives.It has developed an e-cigarette that, unlike nearly all its rivals, is made in the United States.”One of the things that I municate to my team is that if we’re successful, we see jobs happening here,” Cordisco said. “We’re bringing jobs back to this pany, and that’s what’s exciting.”

She declined to give employment numbers but said that RJR Vapor Co. has created jobs in several states, some within the pany, some with suppliers. In Kansas, it makes the cartridges. In its Tobaccoville manufacturing plex near Winston-Salem, it does the final packaging.For now, the number of employees working for e-cigarette panies is relatively small because the industry is small, said Herzog, the analyst.
“Just to put it in perspective, retail sales of e-cigarettes were $1.8 billion in the U.S. last year, estimated, and that pares to an $85 billion bustible cigarette market,” she said. “But I certainly expect that consumption of e-cigs will pass consumption of bustible cigarettes in the next 10 years, and as that trajectory continues, absolutely you’re going to see panies get larger and hire more employees.”

For now, most e-cigarette panies, including Lorillard’s Blu, have their devices made in China, though Blu gets its liquid from a pany in Wisconsin.Herzog believes that it’s likely others will follow Reynolds’ path and move the manufacturing to the United States, where they can better control quality. Federal regulations, which are widely expected to e soon from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, may include standards that would push more panies to make e-cigarettes in the U.S., she said.The potential upside to e-cigarettes also may include farmers.
For much of tobacco’s history in North Carolina, the state’s climate and soil were natural advantages that helped them produce a product of high quality and good taste.

Farmers could fend off tobacco produced in countries where the labor was cheaper

Farmers could fend off tobacco produced in countries where the labor was cheaper, or the climate so hot year round that two crops were possible.But one potential petitive advantage North Carolina farmers have for any e-cigarette es from good luck: Avoca, a large botanical extraction pany, is located in Bertie County near Edenton, not far from many of the state’s top tobacco-producing counties.
There, it mainly has been extracting a fixative from a type of sage that helps scents last longer in perfumes and things such as laundry products. Farmers are now growing thousands of acres of the purple-flowered clary sage in the area.

Last fall, Richmond, Va.-based Universal Leaf, the top vendor of leaf tobacco in the world, and Avoca announced a joint venture called AmeriNic that’s already extracting nicotine from tobacco and is planning to begin mercial sales this year, pany leaders said in an emailed response to questions.
The partners believe it to be the only operation in the country that extracts and purifies nicotine, an addictive stimulant in tobacco and a crucial ingredient in most e-cigarette “juice.”Farmers are watching the venture closely.
“We think there is an opportunity, and we want to be the ones to fill that need,” said Graham Boyd, executive vice president of the Tobacco Growers Association of North Carolina.

In its response to questions, Universal Leaf declined to say where it plans to get its tobacco for extraction but said that its efforts to breed plants specifically for nicotine production were being done here, at least in part.”At this time, we are evaluating various sourcing options,” the pany said. “Given our long history of purchasing quality tobaccos in North Carolina, we have included farms in the state as part of our R&D effort.”
Dr. Loren Fisher, an associate professor of crop science and extension tobacco specialist at NCSU, said one advantage that North Carolina has in trying to reap some benefit from e-cigarettes is its centuries of hard-won knowledge about breeding and growing tobacco. He thinks it will be relatively easy to develop plants that are efficient little green factories for producing large amounts of nicotine, as opposed to the current goals of taste and the quality of the leaves.

We wanted to treat this club as a fashion company

Now, as the Cult of Sporting Kansas City grows, soccer jerseys are nearly everywhere – at bars, concerts, bus stops and grocery stores across the metro.Last year, according to John Moncke, Sporting Kansas City’s vice president of stadium and brand revenue, the No. 1 MLS team in merchandise sales was Seattle, and it has 45,000 people coming to each match. Sporting KC, which averaged 19,709 fans a game, was a close No. 2.Compare that to 2010, when Kansas City was in last place among all MLS teams (and even the general MLS brand) in merchandise sales.Sporting Park, which opened in 2012 and has become one of the best stadiums in all of American soccer, was packed last year with sellouts at all 34 MLS games.The surge in sales and popularity can mostly be attributed to the team’s success on the field.The Cult of Sporting Kansas City has been growing since the team’s rebranding in 2011, culminating in the team winning the MLS Cup at Sporting Park in December.

A key component of KC’s success off the field has been the transition away from dealing in just sports apparel and toward what Moncke, who was a buyer of men’s fashion before joining the club, calls a fashion and lifestyle brand.”We wanted to treat this club as a fashion company,” he said. “We focused on fit, fabric and the right trends. I think that is what’s helped the club outperform some of the bigger-sized markets in the league.”This starts with the most consistent and important piece of fashion the team sells: the jerseys.Buying a jersey for any sport is a big emotional investment. You are marking yourself to those around you as a fan of that team. It’s a fairly large financial investment, too.Soccer jerseys aren’t cheap and, following much of the fashion world, are constantly changing. This year, an authentic MLS jersey (designed by Adidas, which has an exclusive contract with MLS) will run you about $130 without any lettering on the back. Adidas changes the design every two years, so if you want to stay current, it’ll cost you to keep up.A jersey that can be worn on and off the field adds versatility to that investment.”When you look at our three kits, they are all very different from each other, but together they look like a collection,” Moncke says.A kit is a fancy soccer term for the entire uniform. The team has three uniforms, a primary, secondary and third. Generally, the primary kit is for home games, the secondary for away games and the third if the opponent’s uniform is too similar to the primary and secondary.

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